Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Queensway Government Offices

The Queensway Government Office Building is a skyscraper located in the district of Hong Kong. The tower rises 56 and in height. The building was completed in 1985. It was designed by the Hong Kong Architectural Services Department, and was developed by Fujitec. The Queensway Government Offices, which stands as the 54th-tallest building in Hong Kong, is composed entirely of commercial office space. The roof of the Queensway Government Office Building is adorned with a dragon logo, the symbol of Hong Kong; the structure was added in 2002.

Prince's Building

The Prince's Building is an office tower and shopping centre located along Statue Square in , Hong Kong. Tenants include KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers.

It is owned by Hong Kong Land. It is famous for smaller upmarket boutique style shops.

Pacific Place

Pacific Place is a complex of office towers, hotels and shopping centre in , , on Hong Kong Island.

Pacific Place is positioned as one of the most prestigious shopping malls in Hong Kong since its opening period in late-1989, yet considered one of the most popular. Swire maintains a high level of security and order, and it is generally less crowded than rival .

Shops and buildings inside

In Pacific Place there are three main shopping floors, and the top floor is considered one of the most expensive and luxury, consisting of shops such as Prada, Chanel, Louis Vuitton, Bottega Veneta, Gucci, Burberry, Loewe and Lanvin, while on the bottom floor there consists of shops that are not so expensive such as Marathon Sports, Rockport and Gigasports.

There is a theater operated by , which was formerly operated by . The AMC theaters consists of 2 main types: a larger one for peak times and a smaller one with wider and more comfortable seats for weekdays and non-peak hours.

One Pacific Place and Two Pacific Place are office towers. The three hotels are JW Marriott, Hong Kong, Island Shangri-La and . The complex also offers serviced apartments of 270 suites named Pacific Place Apartments.

Along , the complex is strategically located at the interchange on the and of the MTR.

Three Pacific Place, on in Wan Chai, is Swire's latest addition to the portfolio of Pacific Place. The underground access, connecting , Pacific Place and Three Pacific Place, gives the separated Three Pacific Place in Wan Chai to be merged as single complex with Pacific Place in Admiralty. Opened in late 1989. It was officially opened on 26 February 2007. The cost of the construction was HK$100 million.

One Island East

Infobox Skyscraper
|building_name=One Island East
|developer= Swire Properties and two basement levels. The building somewhat resembles .

2008 Tropical storm Kammuri

On 7 August 2008, within two hours of the hoisting of strong wind signal No8 due to , the window panes of One Island East were shattered, sending shards of glass across the street and damaging the windows of four flats at Westlands Court. There were no injuries.

Nina Tower

Nina Tower is a twin tower of 80-storey and 42-storey high-rise building in Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Hong Kong. The original version of this tower was called just Nina Tower and was supposed to be the tallest tower in the world at 518 or 1,699 . However, due to its location near , the height was restricted down to the current 318.8 m or 1,046 ft.

The owner Chinachem Group later changed her plan to break it into two towers. The lower is known as Nina Tower, symbolising the late Nina Wang or Kung Yu Sum natively, the owner of Chinachem Group; the higher is Teddy Tower, symbolising her husband Teddy Wang, who was kidnapped and has since disappeared. Despite the different tower names, the whole development project is under the name of Nina Tower.


* The first version of this tower was designed as the tallest building in the world, but its proximity to the airport resulted in a restriction on its height.
* The top 40 floors will house a 800-room 5-star hotel, while the 10th to 39th floor will contain office space.

Metroplaza Towers

MetroPlaza , also written as Metroplaza and Metro Plaza, is a high-rise development located in the Kwai Chung district of the New Territories in Hong Kong. The complex contains two towers situated above the Metroplaza shopping centre: MetroPlaza Tower 1 and MetroPlaza Tower 2. MetroPlaza Tower 2 is the tallest of the two towers, rising 47 and to the top of its decorative spire and logo.

May House

May House is a skyscraper located in the Wanchai district of Hong Kong. The tower rises 47 and in height. The building was completed in 2004. It was designed by the Hong Kong Architectural Services Department, and was developed by The Facade Group. May House, which stands as the 43rd-tallest building in Hong Kong and is tied in rank with the Citibank Plaza, is composed entirely of commercial office units. It has a total floor area of

The May House was developed as a renovation of the previous building on the site, also known as the May House. The older building was completedly reconstructed, and in the process 20 additional floors were also added. The modern May House now serves as the headquarters of the Hong Kong Police Force.

Manulife Plaza

Manulife Plaza is a skyscraper located in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong. The triangular-shaped tower stands tall and has 52 floors of office space. Prior to the building's completeion in 1998, the Lee Gardens Hotel was demolished in order to make way for this skyscraper.

Manulife Plaza

Manulife Plaza is a skyscraper located in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong. The triangular-shaped tower stands tall and has 52 floors of office space. Prior to the building's completeion in 1998, the Lee Gardens Hotel was demolished in order to make way for this skyscraper.

Lippo Centre, Hong Kong

The Lippo Centre is a pair of twin office towers in Hong Kong, previously known as the Bond Center . The buildings are located at 89 Queensway, in on Hong Kong Island. They were taken over by the Lippo Group after the collapse of the Bond Corporation. The height of the taller tower is 186m.

The buildings, completed in 1987, were dubbed "The Koala Tree" because they resemble koalas clutching a tree. The buildings were designed by American architect Paul Rudolph, who strove to relieve the traditional severity of skyscraper walls by designing clusters of obtruding windows.

Hong Kong artist Gerard D'Henderson, who designed the walls in the Hong Kong , enriched the lobby with dramatic bas-relief murals.

Lippo Centre is featured in the Golden City track in Burnout 3.

Immigration Tower

The Immigration Tower is a skyscraper located in the Wan Chai District of Hong Kong. The tower rises 49 and in height. The building was completed in 1990. The Immigration Tower, which stands as the 93rd-tallest building in Hong Kong, is composed entirely of office space. The building was the site of a fire on August 2, 2000; the blaze broke out on the building's 13th floor, and injured 47 people. The building, along with its , the Revenue Tower, house government offices.

Hong Kong Club Building

The Hong Kong Club Building is the building in between Chater Road and Connaught Road Central at the junction of Jackson Road, , Hong Kong in which the Hong Kong Club is located. It is owned by Hongkong Land.

The Hong Kong Club Building is currently in its third generation, in its second location. Prior to its redevelopment, the previous Hong Kong Club Building was known for being one of the last examples of renaissance architecture remaining in Hong Kong.

Two uses were given to the development, the Hong Kong Club and the rental offices. The club occupies the podium of the building and 8 levels, with 17 levels of office accommodation above.


First generation

Founded in 1846, the Club's first premises were situated on the corner of D'Aguilar Street and Queen's Road.

The three-storey building was designed in a classic style. The cost of construction and furniture of 15,000 was raised through an issue of ?100 shares.

A chronicle article from 1847 said:
"''It is a handsome three-storey building and with the out offices covers nearly the third of an acre of ground...

"''The interior arrangements are very elegant and reflect great credit on the architect for whose design for the building a premium was awarded.... The entrance hall and grand staircase in the centre supported on fluted columns with capitals in the Corinthian order has a very noble effect...''"

Second generation

On 16 February 1895, the Club was granted a 999 year lease on the site under which it had very few restrictions. Rent of $324 was paid annually to the Government

The club building was designed by Palmer & Turner, and was completed in July 1897.

The club held a referendum in around 1974, when the members voted to retain the building and not to redevelop. However, the parlous state of the club's finances tempted the club to explore options to redevelop the valuable site. In 1977, it was reportedly offered HK$200 million for the site by Wardley, A petition was sent to the Executive Council. On 16 September 1980, the Executive Council decided not to endorse the AAB's recommendation that the Club building be preserved as a monument, citing "unjustified cost to the community" - the cost to taxpayers would be HK$500 million The Hong Kong Conservancy Association also appealed to the Murray MacLehose not to undervalue its cultural importance and not to allow the decision to be taken purely on economic grounds. "If even the Government appears to value nothing but money, Hong Kong's youth cannot be expected to have higher standards," said Dr. L. K. Ding, HKCA Chairman.

The General Committee of the club was called to task by members, who contested its decision to sign a deal with developers knock down the building and redevelop the site before members had a chance to debate the issue. An EGM was convened to vote on the proposals on 20 October 1980, and the Chairman was forced to concede the Heads of Agreement would be subject to members' ratification.

Hong Kong Land was the appointed . The Victorian building was demolished in June 1981.

Third generation

The building design, by Australian architect Harry Seidler, was unveiled to the members in December 1980. 80,000 square feet of the new building was to be occupied by the Club - the four podium floors in the new tower would be kept as dining rooms and bars for the members - while the upper floors would be leased for normal office use.

From 2009, the club will take full ownership of the building and collect all revenues, currently an estimated HK$100 million a year.

The building is occupied by a wide range of companies and organisations including Commerzbank Hong Kong, which occupies the top two floors. Others include online broker Charles Schwab and Rolls-Royce Motors which have space on the ground floor, Libertas Capital Asia Limited on the ninth floor, the Institute of Financial Planners on the eighth floor and some law and accounting firms.

Entertainment Building

Entertainment Building is a building at Queen's Road Central between the two junctions with Wyndham Street and D'Aguilar Street in , Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. The neo-gothic architecture and height of the building make it distinctive amongst the old office buildings nearby.

The precursor of the building was a theatre.

The 34-storey commercial tower has a total gross floor area of .


In November 1996, agreed to buy the building from Chinese Estates Holdings, for $3.64 billion, an average price of about $17,300 per sq ft.

Cosco Tower

The Cosco Tower is a 53-floor tower part of the Grand Millennium Plaza on the Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. The tower has a total structural height of 228 m . Construction of the Cosco Tower was completed in 1998.


Cityplaza , located in Taikoo Shing in the of Hong Kong Island, is one of the shopping malls operated by . The mall forms the Island East development with Taikoo Shing and Taikoo Place. The mall is divided into two Phases, Cityplaza I and Cityplaza II , connected by three parallel bridges on 2/F. There are also two large commercial buildings, Cityplaza III and Cityplaza IV, connected to Cityplaza II. A popular ice skating rink, Cityplaza Ice Palace, was first built at level 1 of Cityplaza I and relocated to Level 1 of Cityplaza II, upon Cityplaza II's completion in 1986.

Cityplaza constantly updates its seasonal decor, and also has frequent art, sport and other exhibitions in the public space near the MTR station.

History and development

Phase I

Cityplaza was completed in 1982. As there was no MTR connection yet, double decker buses were used as a free shuttle service when the highway was finished in 1984.

There are six stories in Phase I, with many locations having changed.

The 1/F used to be a Standard Chartered Bank with the remaining space for car parking, until 1987 when a big renovation saw the area converted into retail stores, including Marks & Spencer.

After Wing On department store moved to its current location, the former space was left unoccupied for over three years, with Park n Shop once expressing interest in a lease. Only in 1999 was it leased to Toys R Us, and later fashion store UNIQLO.

Phase II

Phase II was completed in 1987. As there was a hole in the southwest corner of 2/F , one could see part of Whimsy's mini roller coaster ride, but this was filled after the latter's closing down in 1990. There were also large neon advertisements in the middle of Phase II, but these were removed after the big renovation in 2002.

The food court, including Burger King, Oliver's Super Sandwiches, Mario's, , were originally situated next to the ice rink. It was closed in 2001 and replaced by the new food court on 3rd floor in Phase I.

Office space

Cityplaza has 1.7 million sq ft of Grade A office space, in Phases I, II and IV. One Island East, a 70-storey Grade A office building, is due for completion in March 2008. This new development will add another 1.55 million sq ft of office space to the Island East portfolio.

Anchor stores

Cityplaza I

*Marks & Spencer
*Toys "R" Us
*Food Republic Food Republic food court
*Pizza Hut
*Pacific Coffee Company

Cityplaza II



The 2nd floor of Cityplaza is linked to the directly by escalators. Shoppers can also get to the shopping centre by .

Nearby shopping malls

*Kornhill Plaza

Citibank Plaza

Citibank Plaza or the Asia Pacific Finance Tower is a skyscraper on Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong located at 3 , Central. It is 205 metres high and has 50 floors.

China Online Centre

The China Online Centre is a skyscraper located in the Wanchai district of Hong Kong. The tower rises 52 and in height. The building was completed in 2000. It was designed by architectural firm Rocco Design Limited, and was developed by Jaffe Development. The China Online Centre, which stands as the 52nd-tallest building in Hong Kong, is composed entirely of commercial office space. It has a total floor area of .

Chater House

Chater House is an office tower in Central, Hong Kong opened in 2003. It is a part of the Hongkong Land portfolio of properties. Its main tenant is JPMorgan, who have their Asia Pacific headquarters in the building. Other tenants include the Securities and Futures Commission, Hong Kong.
It was built on the site of the former Swire House.

It is named after Sir Paul Chater, partly because the buildings are between Chater Road and Connaught Road Central.

Plot history

Union Building

Following the Praya reclamation of 1890-1904, a building was constructed and served as offices of Canadian Pacific Ocean Services and Hong Kong, Canton & Macao Steamboat Company .

This building was acquired in 1921, and used as its headquarters by the Union Insurance Society of Canton Ltd., and then became known as .

It was bought by The Hong Kong Land Company in 1946, and demolished in 1950.

Swire House

Swire House was completed in 1962, and had a total floor space of 35,000 square metres .

Chater House

The site was again redeveloped by Hongkong Land when the new Hong Kong International Airport opened. The building's main tenant, Cathay Pacific, relocated when the airport moved to its new site at Chek Lap Kok.

The building has a total floor area of 438,500 net sq.ft. , was designed by architects Kohn Pedersen Fox. It was originally configured into 30 floors - 474,000 net sq. ft - of office accommodation above a three-level retail podium of 45,000 net sq.ft. and a three-level basement, which includes 112 parking spaces. When the project was announced, in 1997, the estimated cost was HK$2.3 billion, and would complete in 2003.

The building is linked to the Central Elevated Walkway, also owned by Hong Kong Land.

Nearby buildings

*Prince's Building

Central Plaza, Hong Kong

Central Plaza is the second tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong. With a height of 374 m , Central Plaza is only surpassed by in . The building is located at 18 Harbour Road, in Wan Chai on Hong Kong Island. It was the tallest building in Asia from 1992 to 1996, until the Shun Hing Square in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China, was built. The 78-storey building was completed in August 1995. The building surpassed the as the tallest building in Hong Kong until the completion of .

Central Plaza was also the tallest reinforced concrete building in the world, until it was surpassed by CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou. The building uses a triangular floor plan. On the top of the tower is a four-bar neon clock that indicates the time by displaying different colors in 15 minute intervals, blinking at the change of the quarter.

An anemometer is installed on the tip of the building's mast; the anemometer sits at 378 m above sea level. The mast has a height of 102 m . It also houses the world's highest --Hong Kong City Church.


Central Plaza is made up of two principal components: a free standing 368 m high office tower and a 30.5 m high podium block attached to it. The tower is made up of three sections, a 30.5 m high tower base forming the main entrance and public circulation spaces, a 235.4 m tall tower body containing 57 office floors, a skylobby and five mechanical plant floors and the tower top consist of six mechanical plant floors and a 102 m tall tower mast.

The ground level public area along with the public sitting out area forming an 8,400 m? landscaped garden with richly ornate fountain, trees and artificial stone paving dedicated for public enjoyment. No commercial element is included in the podium. The first level is a public thoroughfare for three pedestrian bridges linking the Mass Transit Railway, the Convention and Exhibition Center and the China Resource Building. By turning these space to public use, the building got 20% plot ratio more as bonus. The triangular building shape of the tower is not truly triangular but with its three corners cut off to provide better internal office spaces.

Design constraints

Triangular shaped floor plan

The building was designed to be in triangular shape because it could provide 20% more of the office area to enjoy the harbour view as compared with the square or rectangular shaped buildings. From an architectural point of view, this arrangement could provide better floor area utilization, offering an internal column free office area with a clear depth of 9 to 13.4 metres and an overall usable floor area efficiency of 81%.
Nonetheless, the triangular building plan causes the air handling unit room in the internal core also assuming a triangular configuration and has only limited space. This makes the adoption of a standard AHU becomes not feasible. Furthermore, all air-conditioning ducting, electrical trunking and piping gathered inside the core area have to be squeezed into a very narrow and congested corridor ceiling void.

Super high-rise building

As the building is situated opposite to the HKCEC, the only way to get more sea view for the building and not to be obstructed by the neighbouring high-rise buildings is to build it tall enough. However, tall building would bring a lot of difficulties to structural and building services design, for example, excessive system static pressure for water systems, high line voltage drop and long distance of vertical transportation. All these problems if not properly resolved will increase the capital cost of the building systems and impair the safety operation of the building.

Maximum clear ceiling height

As a general practice, for achieving a clear height of 2.6 to 2.7 m , a floor-to-floor height of 3.9 to 4.0 m would be required. However, because of high windload in Hong Kong for such a super high-rise building, every increase in building height by a metre would increase the structural cost by more than HK$1 million . Therefore a comprehensive study was conducted and finally a floor height of 3.6 m was adopted. With this issue alone, an estimated construction cost saving for a total of 58 office floors, would be around HK$30 million. Yet at the same time, a maximum ceiling height of 2.6 m in office area could still be achieved with careful coordination and dedicated integration.

Structural constraints

*The site is a newly reclaimed area with a maximum water table rises to about 2 meters below ground level. In the original brief, a 6 storey basement is required, therefore a diaphragm wall design came out.
*The keyword to this project is: time. With a briefing in a limited detail, the structural engineer needed to start work The diaphragm wall design allowed for the basement to be constructed by the top-down method. It allows the superstructure to be constructed at the same time as the basement, thereby removing time consuming basement construction period from the critical path.
*Wind loading is another major design criterion in Hong Kong as it is situated in an area influenced by typhoons. Not only must the structure be able to resist the loads generally and the cladding system and its fixings resist higher local loads, but the building must also perform dynamically in an acceptable manner such that predicted movements lie within acceptable standards of occupant comfort criteria. To ensure that all aspects of the building's performance in strong winds will be acceptable, a detailed wind tunnel study was carried out by Professor Alan Davenport at the BLWT at UWO.

Steel structure vs reinforced concrete

Steel structure is more commonly adopted in high-rise building. In the original scheme, an externally cross-braced framed tube was applied with primary/secondary beams carrying metal decking with reinforced concrete slab. The core was also of steelwork, designed to carry vertical load only. Later after a financial review by the developer, they decided to reduce the height of the superstructure by increasing the size of the floor plate so as to reduce the complex architectural requirements of the tower base which means a highstrength concrete solution became possible.

In the final scheme, columns at 4.6 m centres and 1.1 m deep floor edge beams were used to replace the large steel corner columns. As climbing form and table form construction method and efficient construction management are used in this project which make this reinforced concrete structure take no longer construction time than the steel structure. And the most attractive point is that the reinforced concrete scheme can save HK$230 million compared to that of steel structure. Hence the reinforced concrete structure was adopted and Central Plaza is now the tallest reinforced concrete building in the world.

In the reinforced concrete structure scheme, the core has a similar arrangement to the steel scheme and the wind shear is taken out from the core at the lowest basement level and transferred to the perimeter diaphragm walls. In order to reduce large shear reversals in the core walls in the basement, and at the top of the tower base level, the ground floor, basement levels 1 and 2 and the 5th and 6th floors, the floor slabs and beams are separated horizontally from the core walls.

Another advantage of using reinforced concrete structure is that it is more flexible to cope with changes in structural layout, sizes and height according to the site conditions by using table form system.

Current tenants

*CB Richard Ellis
* 41st Floor & 42nd floor
*Sun Microsystems
*Hong Kong City Church 75th Floor


Image:Hong Kong Central Plaza.jpeg|Central Plaza, 20 April 2003
Image:HK_Wan_Chai_Platform_Great_Eagle_Centre_n_Central_Plaza.JPG|Central Plaza and the Great Eagle Centre, 19 May 2007
image:central-plaza2.jpg|Triangular shaped floor plan of Central Plaza, 20 April 2003
image:central-plaza3.jpg|Vertical shot of Central Plaza, 20 April 2003
Image:HKWanchaiwaterfront.jpg|A view of Wanchai waterfront with Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre in the foreground and Central Plaza behind it, August 2005
image:Central Pier 9.jpg|A view of Wanchai waterfront as seen from Central Pier 9, Nov 2007

Cable TV Tower

The Cable TV Tower is a skyscraper located in Tsuen Wan in Hong Kong which was completed in 1993. The large building stands tall with 41 floors of office and industrial space. The skyscraper is also the tallest office / industrial building in the city.